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Hatha Yoga Pradipika
17 January 2000
Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law.
This E-text of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika was prepared from the 1914 edition
published by Sudhindra Nath Vasu, the Panini office, Bhuvaneswari Asrama,
Bahadurganj, Allababad, Printed by Apurva Krisna Bose, at the Indian
Press, translated by Pancham Sinh.
The english text has been modernised for easier reading.
The sanskrit text is omitted due to the impossibility of representing
it in ASCII.
Where italic text is to be represented it is enclosed in <>.
Where comment is needed it is enclosed in square brackets  and signed
by me as MPM.
All copyrights are retained on this E-text of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika:
it is not delivered into the public domain.
All responsibility for use, misuse, or injury to any persons is totally
the responsibility of the responsible parties, and not the responsibility
of the party responsible for this E-text, or those responsible for its
Copyright (c) January 2000 by Monroe P. Munro. (Revised March 2000)
Love is the law. Love under will.
HATHA YOGA PRADIPIKA
There exists at present a good deal of misconception with regard
to the practices of Hatha Yoga. People easily believe in the stories
told by those who themselves heard them second hand, and no attempt is
made to find out the truth by a direct reference to any good treatise.
It is generally believed that the six practices in Hatha Yoga are
compulsory on the student and that besides being dirty, they are fraught
with danger to the practiser. This is not true, for these practices are
necessary only in the existence of impurities in the Nadis, and not
There is the same amount of misunderstanding with regard to the
Pranayama. People put their fait implicitly in the stories told them
about the dangers attending the practice, without ever taking the
trouble of ascertaining the facts themselves. We have been inspiring
and expiring air from our birth, and will continue to do so till death;
and this is done without help from any teacher. Pranayama is nothing but
a properly regulated form of the otherwise irregular and hurried flow of
air, without using much force or undue restraint; and if this is
accomplished by patiently keeping the flow slow and steady, there can be
no danger. It is the impatience for the Siddhis which cause undue pressure
on the organs and thereby causes pains in the ears, the eyes, the chest,
etc. If the three bandhas be carefully performed while practicing the
Pranayama, there is no possibility of any danger.
There are two classes of students of Yoga: (1) those who study it
theoretically; (2) those who combine the theory with practice.
Yoga is of very little use, if studied theoretically. It was never
meant for such a study. In its practical form, however, the path of the
student is beset with difficulties. The books on Yoga give instructions
so far as it is possible to express the methods in words, but all persons
not being careful enough to follow these instructions to the very letter,
fail in their object. Such persons require a teacher versed in the practice
of Yoga. It is easy to find a teacher who will explain the language of the
books, but this is far from satisfactory. For instance, a Pundit without
any knowledge of Materia Medica will explain [sanskrit text MPM] as [sanskrit
text MPM] or an enemy of thorns, <i.e.>, shoes, while it is in reality the
name of a medicinal plant.
The importance of a practical Yogi as a guide to a student of Yoga
cannot be overestimated; and without such a teacher it is next to impossible
for him to achieve anything. The methods followed by the founders of the
system and followed ever afterwards by their followers, have been wisely and
advisedly kept secret; and this is not without a deep meaning. Looking to the
gravity of the subject and the practices which have a very close relation with
the vital organs of the human body, it is of paramount importance that the
instructions should be received by students of ordinary capacity, through a
practical teacher only, in order to avoid any possibility of mistake in practice.
Speaking broadly, all men are not equally fitted to receive the instructions on
equal terms. Man inherits on birth his mental and physical capitals, according to
his actions in past births, and has to increase them by manipulation, but there
are, even among such, different grades. Hence, one cannot become a Yogi in one
There are men who, impelled by the force of their actions of previous births,
go headlong and accomplish their liberation in a single attempt; but others have to
earn it in their successive births. If the student belongs to one of such souls and
being earnest, desires from his heart to get rid of the pains of birth and death, he
will find the means too. It is well-known that a true Yogi is above temptations and
so to think that he keeps his knowledge secret for selling it to the highest bidder
is simply absurd. Yoga is meant for the good of all creatures, and a true Yogi is
always desirous of benefiting as many men as possible. But he is not to throw this
precious treasure indiscriminately. He carefully chooses its recipients, and when
he finds a true and earnest student, who will not trifle with this knowledge, he
never hesitates in placing his valuable treasure at the disposal of the man. What
is essential in him is that he should have a real thirst for such knowledge--a thirst
which will make him restless till satisfied; the thirst that will make him blind to
the world and its enjoyments. He should be, in short fired with [sanskrit text MPM]
desire for emancipation. To such a one, there is nothing dearer than the accomplishment
of this object. A true lover will see everywhere, in every direction, in every tree and
leaf, in every blade of grass his own beloved. The whole of the world, with all its beauties,
is a dreary waste in his eyes, without his beloved. And he will court death, fall into
the mouth of a gaping grave, for the sake of his beloved. The student whose heart burns
with such intense desire for union with Paramatma, is sure to find a teacher, and through
him he will surely find Him. It is a tried experience that Paramatma will try to meet you
half way, with the degree of intensity with which you will go to meet Him. Even He
Himself will become your guide, direct you on to the road to success, or put you on
the track to find a teacher, or lead him to you.
 It is the half-hearted who fail. They hold their worldly pleasures dearer to
their hearts than their God, and therefore He in His turn does not consider them worthy
of His favors. [sanskrit text MPM]
The atma will choose you its abode only if it considers you worthy of such a favor,
and not otherwise. It is therefore necessary that one should first make oneself worthy of
His acceptance. Having prepared the temple (your heart) well fitted for His installation
there, having cleared it of all the impurities which stink and make the place unsuitable
for the highest personage to live in, and having decorated it beautifully with objects as
befit that Lord of the creation, you need not wait long for Him to adorn this temple of
yours which you have taken pains to make worthy of Him. If you have done all this, He will
shine in you with all His glory. In your difficult moments, when you are embarrassed, sit
in a contemplative mood, and approach your Prama Guru submissively and refer your
difficulties to Him, you are sure to get the proper advice from Him. He is the Guru of
the ancients, for He is not limited by Time. He instructed the ancients in bygone times,
like a Guru, and if you have been unable to find a teacher in the human form, enter your
inner temple and consult this Great Guru who accompanies you everywhere, and ask Him to
show you the way. He knows best what is best for you. Unlike mortal beings, He is beyond
the past and the future, will either send one of His agents to guide you or lead you to
one and put you on the right track. He is always anxious to teach the earnest seekers,
and waits for you to offer Him an opportunity to do so. But if you have not done your
duty and prepared yourself worthy of entering His door, and try to gain access to his
presence, laden with your unclean burden, stinking with Kama, Krodha, Lobha, and Moha,
be sure He will keep you off from Him.
The Asanas are a means of gaining steadiness of position and help to gain success
in contemplation, without any distraction of the mind. If the position be not comfortable,
the slightest inconvenience will draw the mind away from the laksya (aim), and so no peace
will be possible till the posture has ceased to cause pain by regular exercise.
Of all the various methods for concentrating the mind, repetition of Pranava or Ajapa
Japa and contemplation on its meaning is the best. It is impossible for the mind to sit idle
even for a single moment, and, therefore, in order to keep it well occupied and to keep
other antagonistic thoughts from entering it, repetition of Pranava should be practiced.
It should be repeated till Nidra is induced which, when experienced, should be encouraged
by slackening all the muscles of the body. This will fill the mind with sacred and divine
thoughts and will bring about its one-pointedness, without much effort.
Anahata Nada is awakened by the exercise of Pranayama. A couple of weeks practice with
80 pranayamas in the morning and the same number in the evening will cause distinct sounds
to be heard; and, as the practice will go on increasingly, varied sounds become audible to
the practiser. By hearing these sound attentively one gets concentration of the mind, and
should give himself up to it and make no efforts to check it. By and by, these sounds become
subtle and they become less and less intense, so the mind loses its waywardness and becomes
calm and docile; and, on this practice becoming well-established, Samadhi becomes a voluntary
act. This is, however, the highest stage and is the lot of the favored and fortunate few only.
During contemplation one sees, not with his eyes, as he does the objects of the world,
various colors, which the writers on Yoga call the colors of the five elements. Sometimes
stars are seen glittering, and lightning flashes in the sky. But these are all fleeting in
At first these colors are seen in greatly agitated waves which show the unsteady
condition of the mind, and as the practice increases and the mind becomes calm, these
color-waves become steady and motionless and appear as one deep ocean of light. This
is the ocean in which one should dive and forget the world and become one with his
Lord -- which is the condition of the highest bliss.
Faith in the practices of Yoga, and in one's own powers to accomplish what others
have done before, is of great importance to insure speedy success. I mean : faith that
will move mountains," will accomplish anything, be it howsoever difficult. There is nothing
which cannot be accomplished by practice. [Sanskrit text quoting Siva Samhita chapter 4, verses
Through practice success is obtained; through practice one gains liberation.
Perfect consciousness is gained through practice; Yoga is attained through practice;
success in mudras comes by practice. Through practice is gained success in pranayama. Death
can be evaded of its prey through practice, and man becomes the conqueror of death by practice.
And then let us gird up our loins, and with a firm resolution engage in the practice, having
faith in [Sanskrit text MPM] and the success must be ours. May the Almighty Father, be pleased
to shower His blessings on those who thus engage in the performance of their duties. Om Sam.
AJMER: } PANCHAM SINH.
31st January, 1915. }
HATHA YOGA PRADIPIKA.
1. Salutation to Adinatha (Siva) who expounded the knowledge of Hatha
Yoga, which like a staircase leads the aspirant to the high pinnacled
2. Yogin Swatmarama, after saluting his Guru Srinatha explains
Hatha Yoga for the attainment of Raja Yoga.
3. Owing to the darkness arising from the multiplicity of opinions
people are unable to know the Raja Yoga. Compassionate Swatmarama
composes the Hatha Yoga Pradipika like a torch to dispel it.
4. Matsyendra, Goraksa, etc., knew Hatha Vidya, and by their favor
Yogi Swatmarama also learnt it from them.
5. The following Siddhas (masters) are said to have existed in former
Sri Adinatha (Siva), Matsyendra, Natha, Sabar, Anand, Bhairava,
Chaurangi, Mina Natha, Goraksanatha, Virupaksa, Bilesaya.
6. Manthana, Bhairava, Siddhi Buddha, Kanthadi, Karantaka,
Surananda, Siddhipada, Charapati.
7. Kaneri, Pujyapada, Nityatha, Niranjana, Kapali, Vindunatha,
8. Allama, Prabhudeva, Ghoda, Choli, Tintini, Bhanuki, Nardeva,
Khanda Kapalika, etc.
9. These Mahasiddhas (great masters), breaking the scepter of death,
are roaming in the universe.
10. Like a house protecting one from the heat of the sun, Hatha Yoga
protects its practisers from the burning heat of the three Tapas; and,
similarly, it is the supporting tortoise, as it were, for those who are
constantly devoted to the practice of Yoga.
11. A yogi desirous of success should keep the knowledge of Hatha
Yoga secret; for it becomes potent by concealing, and impotent by
12. The Yogi should practice Hatha Yoga in a small room, situated in a
solitary place, being 4 cubits square, and free from stones, fire, water,
disturbances of all kinds, and in a country where justice is properly
administered, where good people live, and food can be obtained easily
13. The room should have a small door, be free from holes, hollows,
neither too high nor too low, well plastered with cow-dung and free from
dirt, filth and insects. On its outside there should be bowers, raised
platform (chabootra), a well, and a compound. These characteristics of
a room for Hatha Yogis have been described by adepts in the practice
14. Having seated in such a room and free from all anxieties, he should
practice Yoga, as instructed by his <guru>.
15. Yoga is destroyed by the following six causes:-- Over-eating, exertion,
talkativeness, adhering to rules, <i.e.>, cold bath in the morning, eating
at night, or eating fruits only, company of men, and unsteadiness.
16. The following six bring speedy success:-- Courage, daring, perseverance,
discriminative knowledge, faith, aloofness from company.
17. The ten rules of conduct are: ahimsa (non-injuring), truth, non-stealing,
continence, forgiveness, endurance, compassion, meekness, sparing diet,
18. The ten niyamas mentioned by those proficient in the knowledge of Yoga
are: Tapa, patience, belief in God, charity, adoration of God, hearing
discourses on the principles of religion, shame, intellect, Tapa and
19. Being the first accessory of Hatha Yoga, asana is described first.
It should be practiced for gaining steady posture, health and lightness
20. I am going to describe certain asanas which have been adopted by
Munis like Vasistha, etc., and Yogis like Matsyendra, etc.
21. Having kept both the hands under both the thighs, with the body straight,
when one sits calmly in this posture, it is called Swastika.
22. Placing the right ankle on the left side and the left ankle on the
right side, makes Gomukha-asana, having the appearance of a cow.
23. One foot is to be placed on the thigh of the opposite side; and so
also the other foot on the opposite thigh. This is called Virasana.
24. Placing the right ankle on the left side of the anus, and the left
ankle on the right side of it, makes what the Yogis call Kurma-asana.
25. Taking the posture of Padma-asana and carrying the hands under the
thighs, when the Yogi raises himself above the ground, with his palms
resting on the ground, it becomes Kukkuta-asana.
26. Having assumed the Kukkuta-asana, when one grasps his neck by
crossing his hands behind his head, and lies in this posture with his back
touching the ground, it becomes Uttana Kurma-asana, from its appearance
like that of a tortoise.
27. Having caught the toes of the foot with both hands and carried them
to the ears by drawing the body like a bow, it becomes Dhanura asana.
28-29. Having placed with the right foot at the root of the left thigh, let the
toe be grasped with the right hand passing over the back, and having placed
the left foot on the right thigh at its root, let it be grasped with the left
hand passing behind the back. This is the asana, as explained by Sri Matsyanatha.
It increases appetite and is an instrument for destroying the group of the most
deadly diseases. Its practice awakens the Kundalini, stops the nectar shedding
from the moon in people.
30. Having stretched the feet on the ground, like a stick, and having
grasped the toes of both feet with both hands, when one sits with his
forehead resting on the thighs, it is called Paschima Tana.
31. This Paschima Tana carries the air from the front to the back part
of the body (<i.e.>, to the sushumna). It kindles gastric fire, reduces
obesity and cures all diseases of men.
32. Place the palms of both hands on the ground, and place the
navel on both the elbows and balancing thus, the body should be
stretched backwards like a stick. This is called Mayura-asana.
33. This asana soon destroyed all diseases, and removes abdominal
disorders, and also those arising from irregularities of phlegm,
bile and wind, digests unwholesome food taken in excess, increases
appetite and destroys the most deadly poison.
34. Laying down on the ground, like a corpse, is called Sava-asana. It
removes fatigue and gives rest to the mind.
35. Siva taught 84 asanas. Of these the first four being essential ones,
I am going to explain them here.
36. These four are:-- The Siddha, Padma, Sinha and Bhadra. Even of
these, the Siddha-asana, being very comfortable, one should always
37. Press firmly the heel of the left foot against the perineum, and the
right heel above the lingha. With the chin pressing on the chest, one
should sit calmly, having restrained the senses, and gaze steadily at the
space between the eyebrows. This is called the Siddha Asana, the opener
of the door of salvation.
38. This Siddhasana is performed also by placing the left heel on
the Medhra (above the penis), and placing the right one next to it.
39. Some call this Siddhasana, some Vajrasana. Others call it Mukta
Asana or Gupta Asana.
40. Just as sparing food is among Yamas, and Ahimsa among the
Niyamas, so is Siddhasana called by adepts the chief of all the
41. Out of the 84 Asanas Siddhasana should always be practiced, because
it cleanses the impurities of 72,000 nadis.
42. By contemplating on oneself, by eating sparingly, and by practicing
Siddhasana for 12 years, the Yogi obtains success.
43. Other postures are of no use, when success has been achieved in
Siddhasana, and Prana Vayu becomes calm and restrained by Kevala
44. Success in one Siddhasana alone becoming firmly established, one
gets Unmani at once, and the three bonds (Bandhas) are accomplished
45. There is no Asana like the Siddhasana and no Kumbhaka like the
Kevala. There is no mudra like the Khechari and no <laya> like the
Nada (Anahata Nada).
46. Place the right foot on the left thigh and the left foot on the
right thigh, and grasp the toes with the hands crossed over the back.
Press the chin against the chest and gaze on the tip of the nose. This
is called the Padmasana, the destroyer of the diseases of the Yamis.
47. Place the feet on the thighs, with the soles upward, and place the
hands on the thighs, with the palms upwards.
48. Gaze on the tip of the nose, keeping the tongue pressed against the
root of the teeth of the upper jaw, and the chin against the chest, and
raise the air up slowly, <i.e.>, pull the apana-vayu gently upwards.
49. This is called the Padmasana, the destroyer of all diseases. It is
difficult of attainment by everybody, but can be learnt by intelligent
people in this world.
50. Having kept both hands together in the lap, performing the
Padmasana firmly, keeping the chin fixed to the chest and contemplating
on Him in the mind, by drawing the apana-vayu up (performing Mula Bandha)
and pushing down the air after inhaling it, joining thus the prana and
apana in the navel, one gets the highest intelligence by awakening the
sakti (kundalini) thus.
(<N.B.>-- When Apana Vayu is drawn gently up and after filling the lungs
with the air from outside, the prana is forced down by and by so as to join
both of them in the navel, they both enter then the Kundalini and, reaching
the Brahma randra (the great hole), they make the mind calm. Then the mind can
contemplate on the nature of the atmana and can enjoy the highest bliss.)
51. The Yogi who, sitting with Padmasana, can control breathing,
there is no doubt, is free from bondage.
52. Press the heels on both sides of the seam of the Perineum, in such
a way that the left heel touches the right side and the right heel touches
the left side of it.
53. Place the hands on the thighs, with stretched fingers, and keeping
the mouth open and the mind collected, gaze on the tip of the nose.
54. This is Simhasana, held sacred by the best Yogis. This excellent
Asana effects the completion of the three Bandhas (the Mulabandha,
Kantha or Jalandhar Bandha and Uddiyana Bandha).
55-56. Place the heels on either side of the seam of the Perineum, keeping
the left heel on the left side and the right one on the right side, holding
the feet firmly joined to one another with both the hands. This Bhadrasana
is the destroyer of all diseases.
57. The expert Yogis call this Goraksa asana. By sitting with this
asana, the Yogi gets rid of fatigue.
58. The Nadis should be cleansed of their impurities by performing
the mudras, etc., (which are the practices relating to the air) Asanas,
Kumbhakas and various curious mudras.
59. By regular and close attention to Nada (anahata nada) in Hatha Yoga,
a Brahmachari, sparing in diet, unattached to objects of enjoyment, and
devoted to Yoga, gains success, no doubt, within a year.
60. Abstemious feeding is that in which 3/4 of hunger is satisfied with
food, well cooked with ghee and sweets, and eaten with the offering of it
<Foods injurious to a Yogi.>
61. Bitter, sour, saltish, green vegetables, fermented, oily, mixed with
til seed, rape seed, intoxicating liquors, fish, meat, curds, chhaasa pulses,
plums, oil-cake, asafeotida (hinga), garlic, onion, etc., should not be eaten.
62. Food heated again, dry, having too much salt, sour, minor grains, and
vegetables that cause burning sensation, should not be eaten.
Fire, women, travelling, etc., should be avoided.
63. As said by Goraksa, one should keep aloof from the society of the evil-
minded, fire, women, travelling, early morning bath, fasting, and all kinds
of bodily exertion.
64. Wheat, rice, barley, shastik (a kind of rice), good corns, milk, ghee,
sugar, butter, sugarcandy, honey, dried ginger, Parwal (a vegetable), the
five vegetables, moong, pure water, these are very beneficial to those
who practice Yoga.
65. A yogi should eat tonics (things giving strength), well sweetened,
greasy (made with ghee), milk butter, etc., which may increase humors
of the body, according to his desire.
66. Whether young, old or too old, sick or lean, one who discards
laziness, gets success if he practices Yoga.
67. Success comes to him who is engaged in the practice. How can one
get success without practice; for by merely reading books on Yoga, one
can never get success.
68. Success cannot be attained by adopting a particular dress (Vesa).
It cannot be gained by telling tales. Practice alone is the means to
success. This is true, there is no doubt.
69. Asanas, various Kumbhakas, and other divine means, all should
be practiced in the practice of Hatha Yoga, till the fruit-- Raja
Yoga_ is obtained.
End of the first chapter, on the method of forming the Asanas.
1. Posture becoming established, a Yogi, master of himself, eating
salutary and moderate food, should practice pranayama, as instructed
by his guru.
2. Respiration being disturbed, the mind becomes disturbed. By
restraining respiration, the Yogi gets steadiness of mind.
3. So long as the (breathing) air stays in the body, it is called life.
Death consists in the passing out of the (breathing) air. It is, therefore,
necessary to restrain the breath.
4. The breath does not pass through the middle channel (susumna), owing
to the impurities of the nadis. How can then success be attained,
and how can there be the unmani avastha.
5. When the whole system of the nadis which is full of impurities, is
cleaned, then the Yogi becomes able to control the Prana.
6. Therefore, Pranayama should be performed daily with satwika buddhi
(intellect free from raja and tama or activity and sloth), in order
to drive out the impurities of the susumna.
<Methods of performing Pranayama.>
7. Sitting in the Padmasana posture the Yogi should fill in the air
through the left nostril (closing the right one); and, keeping it confined
according to one's ability, it should be expelled slowly through the surya
8. Then, drawing in the air through the surya slowly, the belly
should be filled, and after performing Kumbhaka as before, it should be
expelled slowly through the chandra (left nostril).
9. Inhaling thus through the one, through which it was expelled, and
having restrained it there, till possible, it should be exhaled through
the other, slowly and not forcibly.
10. If the air be inhaled through the left nostril, it should be expelled
again through the other, and filling it through the right nostril, confining
it there, it should be expelled through the left nostril. By practicing in
this way, through the right and the left nostrils alternately, the whole
of the collection of the nadis of the yamis (practisers) becomes clean,
<i.e.>, free from impurities, after 3 months and over.
11. Kumbhakas should be performed gradually four times during day and
night (<i.e.>, morning, noon, evening and midnight), till the number of
Kumbhakas for one time is 80 and for day and night together it is 320.
12. In the beginning there is perspiration, in the middle stage there is
quivering, and in the last or third stage, one obtains steadiness; and
then the breath should be made steady or motionless.
13. The perspiration exuding from exertion of practice should be
rubbed into the body (and not wiped), as by so doing the body becomes
14. During the first stage of practice the food consisting of milk and
ghee is wholesome. When the practice becomes established, no such
restriction is necessary.
15. Just as lions, elephants and tigers are controlled by and by, so the
breath is controlled by slow degrees, otherwise (<i.e.>, by being hasty or
using too much force) it kills the practitioner himself.
16. When Pranayama, etc., are performed properly, they eradicate all
diseases; but an improper practice generates diseases.
17. Hiccough, asthma, cough, pain in the head, the ears, and the eyes;
these and other various kinds of diseases are generated by the disturbance
of the breath.
18. The air should be expelled with proper tact and should be filled
in skillfully; and when it has been kept confined properly it brings
(<N.B.>--The above caution is necessary to warn the aspirants against
omitting any instruction; and in their zeal to gain success or siddhis
early, to begin the practice, either by using too much force in filling
in, confining and expelling the air, or by omitting any instructions, it may
cause unnecessary pressure on their ears, eyes, &c., and cause pain. Every word
in the instructions is full of meaning and is necessarily used in the slokas,
and should be followed very carefully and with due attention. Thus there will be
nothing to fear whatsoever. We are inhaling and exhaling the air throughout our
lives without any sort of danger, and Pranayama being only a regular form of it,
there should be no cause to fear.)
19. When the nadis become free from impurities, and there appear the
outward signs of success, such as lean body and glowing color, then
one should feel certain of success.
20. By removing the impurities, the air can be restrained, according
to one's wish and the appetite is increased, the divine sound is awakened,
and the body becomes healthy.
21. If there be excess of fat or phlegm in the body, the six kinds of kriyas
(duties) should be performed first. But others, not suffering from the excess
of these, should not perform them.
22. The six kinds of duties are: Dhauti, Basti, Neti, Trataka, Nauti and
Kapala Bhati. These are called the six actions.
23. These six kinds of actions which cleanse the body should be kept
secret. They produce extraordinary attributes and are performed with
earnestness by the best Yogis.
24. A strip of cloth, about 3 inches wide and 15 cubits long, is pushed
in (swallowed), when moist with warm water, through the passage shown by
the <guru>, and is taken out again. This is called Dhauti Karma.
(<N.B.>-- The strip should be moistened with a little warm water, and the
end should be held with the teeth. It is swallowed slowly, little by little:
thus, first day 1 cubit, 2nd day 2 cubits, 3rd day 3 cubits, and so on. After
swallowing it the stomach should be given a good, round motion from left to
right, and then it should be taken out slowly and gently.)
25. There is no doubt, that cough, asthma, enlargement of the spleen,
leprosy, and 20 kinds of diseases born of phlegm, disappear by the
practice of Dhauti Karma.
26. Squatting in navel deep water, and intoducing a six inches long,
smooth piece of 1/2 an inch diameter pipe, open at both ends, half inside
the anus; it (anus) should be drawn up (contracted) and then expelled.
This washing is called Basti Karma.
27. By practicing this Basti Karma, colic, enlarged spleen, and dropsy,
arising from the disorders of Vata (air), pitta (bile) and kapha (phlegm),
are all cured.
28. By practicing Basti with water, the Dhatus, the Indriyas and the mind
become calm. It gives glow and tone to the body and increases the appetite.
All the disorders disappear.
29. A cord made of threads and about six inches long, should be passed
through the passage of the nose and the end taken out in the mouth. This
is called by adepts the Neti Karma.
30. The Neti is the cleaner of the brain and giver of divine sight. It
soon destroys all the diseases of the cervical and scapular regions.
31. Being calm, one should gaze steadily at a small mark, till eyes are
filled with tears. This is called Tratika be acharyas.
32. Tratika destroys the eye diseases and removes sloth, etc. It should
be kept secret very carefully, like a box of jewelry.
33. Sitting on the toes with heels raised above the ground, and the palms
resting on the ground, and in this bent posture the belly is moved
forcibly from left to right, just as in vomiting. This is called by adepts
the Nauli Karma.
34. It removes dyspepsia, increases appetite and digestion, and is like
the goddess of creation, and causes all happiness. It dries up all the
disorders. This is an excellent exercise in Hatha Yoga.
<The Kapala Bhati.>
35. When inhalation and exhalation are performed very quickly, like
a pair of bellows of a blacksmith, it dries up all the disorders from
the excess of phlegm, and is known as Kapala Bhati.
36. When Pranayama is performed after getting rid of obesity born
of the defects of phlegm, by the performance of the six duties, it
easily brings success.
37. Some acharyas (teachers) do not advocate any other practice, being
of opinion that all the impurities are dried up by the practice of
38. By carrying the Apana Vayu up to the throat, the food, etc., in
the stomach are vomited, By degrees, the system of Nadis (Sankhini)
becomes known. This is called in Hatha as Gaja Karani.
39. Brahna and other Devas were always engaged in the exercise of
Pranayama, and, by means of it, got rid of the fear of death. Therefore,
one should practice pranayama regularly.
40. So long as the breath is restrained in the body, so long as the mind is
undisturbed, and so long as the gaze is fixed between the eyebrows, there is
no fear from Death.
41. When the system of Nadis becomes clear of the impurities by
properly controlling the prana, then the air, piercing the entrance
of the Susumna, enters it easily.
42. Steadiness of mind comes when the air moves freely in the middle.
That is the manonmani condition, which is attained when the mind
43. To accomplish it, various Kumbhakas are performed by those who
are expert in the methods; for, by the practice of different Kumbhakas,
wonderful success is attained.
<Different kinds of Kumbhakas.>
44. Kumbhakas are of eight kinds, <viz.>, Surya Bhedan, Ujjayi, Sitkari,
Sitali, Bhastrika, Bhramari, Murchha, and Plavini.
45. At the end of Puraka, Jalandhara Bandha should be performed,
and at the end of Kumbhaka, and at the beginning of Rechaka, Uddiyana
Bandhas should not be performed.
(<N.B.>--Puraka is filling in of the air from the outside.)
46. Kumbhaka is the keeping the air confined inside. Rechaka is expelling
the confined air. The instructions for Puraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka will be
found at the proper place and it should be carefully followed.
By drawing up from below (Mula Bandha) and contracting the throat
(Jalanddhara Bandha) and by pulling back the middle of the front
portion of the body (<i.e.>, belly), the Prana goes to the Brahma Nadi
(<N.B.>-- The middle hole, through the vertebral column, through which
the spinal cord passes, is called the Susumna Nadi of the Yogis. The two
other sympathetic cords, one on each side of the spinal cord, are called
the Ida and the Pingala Nadis. These will be described later on.)
47. By pulling up the Apana Vayu and by forcing the Prana Vayu down the
throat, the yogi, liberated from old age, becomes young, as it were 16
(<Note.>--The seat of the Prana is the heart; of the Apana anus;
of the Samana the region about the navel; of Udana the throat; while the
Vyana moves throughout the body.)
48. Taking any comfortable posture and performing the asana, the Yogi
should draw in air slowly, through the right nostril.
49. Then it should be confined within, so that it fills from the nails
to the tips of the hair, and let it out through the left nostril slowly.
(<Note.>-- This is to be done alternately with both the nostrils,
drawing in through one, expelling through the other, and <vice versa>.)
50. This excellent Surya Bhedana cleanses the forehead (frontal sinuses),
destroys the disorders of Vata, and removes the worms, and, therefore, it
should be performed again and again.
(<Note.>--Translation: 1. I am going to describe the procedure of the
practice of Yoga, in order that Yogis may succeed. A wise man should leave his
bed in the Usa Kala (<i.e.>, at the peep of dawn or 4 o'clock) in the morning.
2. Remembering his guru over his head, and his desired deity in his
heart, after answering the calls of nature, and cleaning his mouth, he should
apply Bhasma (ashes).
3. In a clean spot, clean room and charming ground, he should spread
a soft asana (cloth for sitting on). Having seated on it and remembering in
his mind his guru and his god.
4. Having extolled the place and the time and taking up the vow thus:
'To day by the grace of God, I will perform Pranayamas with asanas for gaining
samadhi (trance) and its fruits.' He should salute the infinite Deva, Lord of
the Nagas, to insure success in the asanas (postures).
5. Salutation to the Lord of the Nagas, who is adorned with thousands
of heads, set with brilliant jewels (manis), and who has sustained the whole
universe, nourishes it, and is infinite. After this he should begin his
exercise of asanas and when fatigued, he should practice sava asana. Should
there be no fatigue, he should not practice it.
6. Before Kumbhaka, he should perform Viparita Karni Mudra, in order
that he may be able to perform Jalandhar bandha comfortably.
7. Sipping a little water, he should begin the exercise of Pranayama,
after saluting Yogindras, as described in the Kurma Purana, in the words of
8. Such as "Saluting Yogindras and their disciples and guru Vinayaka,
the Yogi should unite with me with composed mind."
9. While practicing, he should sit with Siddhasana, and having performed
<bandhu> and Kumbhaka, should begin with 10 Pranayamas the first day, and go on
increasing 6 daily.
10. With composed mind 80 Kumbhakas should be performed at a time;
beginning first with the chandra (the left nostril) and then the surya (the right
11-12. This has been spoken of by wise men as Anuloma and Viloma. Having
practiced Surya Bhedan, with Bandhas, the wise man should practice Ujjayi and
then Sitkari Sitali, and Bhastrika, he may practice others or not.
13. He should practice mudras properly, as instructed by his guru. Then
sitting with Padmasana, he should hear anahata nada attentively.
14. He should <resign the fruits of all his practice reverently to God,>
and, on rising on completion of the practice, a warm bath should be taken.
15. The bath should bring all the daily duties briefly to an end. At noon
also a little rest should be taken at the end of the exercise, and then food should
16. Yogis should always take wholesome food and never anything unwholesome.
After dinner he should eat Ilachi or lavanga.
17. Some like camphor, and betel leaf. To the Yogis, practicing Pranayama,
betel leaf without powders, <i.e.>, lime, nuts and katha, is beneficial.
18. After taking food he should read books treating of salvation, or hear
Puranas and repeat the name of God.
19. In the evening the exercise should begin after finishing Sandyha, as
before, beginning the practice 3 ghatika or one hour before the sun sets.
20. Evening sandhya should always be performed after practice, and Hatha
Yoga should be practiced at midnight.
21. Viparita Karni is good to be practiced in the evening and at midnight,
and not just after eating, as it does no good at this time.)
51. Having closed the opening of the Nadi (larynx), the air should be drawn
in such a way that it goes touching from the throat to the chest, and making
noise while passing.
52. It should be restrained, as before, and then let out through the Ida (the
left nostril). This removes slesma (phlegm) in the throat and increases the
53. It destroys the defects of the nadis, dropsy and disorders of Dhatu
(humors). Ujjayi should be performed in all conditions of life, even while
walking or sitting.
54. Sitkari is performed by drawing in the air through the mouth, keeping
the tongue between the lips. The air thus drawn in should not be expelled
through the mouth. By practicing in this way, one becomes next to the God
of love and beauty.
55. He is regarded adorable by the Yoginis and becomes the destroyer of
the cycle of creation. He is not afflicted with hunger, thirst, sleep or
56. The Satwa of his body becomes free from all disturbances. In truth,
he becomes the lord of the Yogis in this world.
57. As in the above (Sitkari>, the tongue to be protruded a little out of
the lips, when the air is drawn in. It is kept confined, as before, and then
expelled slowly through the nostrils.
58. This Sitali Kumbhaka cures colic, (enlarged) spleen, fever, disorders
of bile, hunger, thirst, and counteracts poisons.
59. The Padma Asana consists in crossing the feet and placing them on
both the thighs; it is the destroyer of all sins.
60. Binding the Padma-Asana and keeping the body straight, closing the
mouth carefully, let the air be expelled through the nose.
61. It should be filled up to the lotus of the heart, by drawing it in with
force, making noise and touching the throat, the chest and the head,
62. It should be expelled again and filled again and again as before, just
as a pair of bellows of the blacksmith is worked.
63. In the same way, the air of the body should be moved intelligently,
filling it through Suyra when fatigue is experienced.
64. The air should be drawn in through the right nostril by pressing the
thumb against the left side of the nose, so as to close the left nostril;
and when filled to the full, it should be closed with the fourth finger (the
one next to the little finger) and kept confined.
65. Having confined it properly, it should be expelled through the Ida
(left nostril). This destroys Vata, pitta (bile) and phlegm and increases
the digestive power ( the gastric fire).
66. It quickly awakens the Kundalini, purifies the system, gives pleasure,
and is beneficial. It destroys phlegm and the impurities accumulated at
the entrance of the Brahma Nadi.
67. This Bhastrika should be performed plentifully, for it breaks the three
knots: Brahma granthi (in the chest), Visnu granthi (in the throat), and
Rudra granthi (between the eyebrows) of the body.
68. By filling the air with force, making noise like Bhringi (wasp), and
expelling it slowly, making noise in the same way; this practice causes a
sort of ecstasy in the minds of Yogindras.
69. Closing the passages with Jalandhar Bandha firmly at the end of
Puraka, and expelling the air slowly, is called Murchha, from its causing
the mind to swoon and give comfort.
70. When the belly is filled with air and the inside of the body is filled
to its utmost with air, the body floats on the deepest water, like a leaf of
71. Considering Puraka (Filling), Rechaka (expelling) and Kumhaka
(confining), Pranayama is of three kinds, but considering it accompanied
by Puraka and Rechaka, and without these, it is of two kinds only, <i.e.>,
Sabita (with) and Kevala (alone).
72. Exercise in Sahita should be continued till success in Kevala is
gained. This latter is simply confining the air with ease, without
Rechaka and Puraka.
73. In the practice of Kevala Pranayama when it can be performed successfully
without Rechaka and Puraka, then it is called Kevala Kumbhaka.
74. There is nothing in the three worlds which may be difficult to obtain
for him who is able to keep the air confined according to pleasure, by
means of Kevala Kumbhaka.
75. He obtains the position of Raja Yoga undoubtedly. Kundalini awakens
by Kumbhaka, and by its awakening, Susumna becomes free from impurities.
76. No success in Raja Yoga without Hatha Yoga, and no success in Hatha
Yoga without Raja Yoga. One should, therefore, practice both of these well,
till complete success is gained.
77. On the completion of Kumbhaka, the mind should be given rest. By
practicing in this way one is raised to the position of (succeeds in
getting) Raja Yoga.
<Indications of success in the practice of Hatha Yoga.>
78. When the body becomes lean, the face glows with delight, Anahata-nada
manifests, and eyes are clear, the body is healthy, <bindu> under control,
and appetite increases, then one should know that the Nadis are purified
and success in Hatha Yoga is approaching.
End of Chapter II.
1. As the chief of the snakes is the support of the earth with all the
mountains and forests on it, so all the Tantras (Yoga practices) rest on
the Kundalini. (The Vertebral column.)
2. When the sleeping Kundalini awakens by favor of a <guru>, then all
the lotuses (in the six chakras or centers) and all the knots are pierced
3. Susumna (Sunya Padavi) becomes a main road for the passage of Prana,
and the mind then becomes free from all connections (with its objects of
enjoyments) and Death is then evaded.
4. Susumna, Sunya, Padavi, Brahma Randhra, Maha Patha, Smasana, Sambhavi,
Madhya Marga, are names of one and the same thing.
5. In order, therefore, to awaken this goddess, who is sleeping at the
entrance of Brahma Dwara (the great door), mudras should be practiced well.
6. Maha Mudra, Maha Bandha, Maha Vedha, Khechari, Uddiyana Bandha,
Mula Bandha, Jalandhara Bandha.
7. Viparita Karani, Vijroli, and Sakti Chalana. These are the ten
Mudras which annihilate old age and death.
8. The have been explained by Adi Natha (Siva) and give eight kinds of
divine wealth. They are loved by all the Siddhas and are hard to attain
even by the Marutas.
(<Note.>--The eight <Aiswarikis> are: Anima (becoming small, like an atom),
Mahima (becoming great, like akas, by drawing in atoms of prakriti), Garima
(light things, like cotton becoming very heavy like mountains).
Prapti (coming within easy reach of everything; as touching the moon
with the little finger, while standing on the earth).
Prakamya (non-resistance to the desires, as entering the earth like
Isata (mastery over matter and objects made of it).
Vasitwa (controlling the animate and inanimate objects).
9. These Mudras should be kept secret by every means, as one keeps one's
box of jewelry, and should, on no account be told to any one, just as
husband and wife keep their dealings secret.
<The Maha Mudra.>
10. Pressing the Yoni (perineum) with the heel of the left foot, and
stretching forth the right foot, its toes should be grasped by the thumb
and first finger.
11-12. By stopping the throat (by Jalandhara Bandha) the air is drawn in
from outside and carried down. Just as a snake struck with a stick becomes
straight like a stick, in the same way, <sakti> (susumna) becomes straight
at once. Then the Kundalini becoming as it were dead, and, leaving both the
Ida and the Pingala, enters the susumna (the middle passage).
13. It should be expelled then, slowly only and not violently. For this
very reason, the best of wise men call it the Maha Mudra. This Muha
Mudra has been propounded by great masters.
14. Great evils and pains, like death, are destroyed by it, and for
this reason wise men call it the Maha Mudra.
15. Having practiced with the left nostril, it should be practiced with
the right one; and, when the number on both sides becomes equal, then
the mudra should be discontinued.
16. There is nothing [un MPM] wholesome or injurious; for the practice of this
mudra destroys the injurious effects of all the rasas (chemicals). Even
the deadliest of poisons, if taken, acts like nectar.
17. Consumption, leprosy, prolapsus anii, colic, and the diseases due
to indigestion,-- all these irregularities are removed by the practice
of this Maha Mudra.
18. This Maha Mudra has been described as the giver of great success
(Siddhi) to men. It should be kept secret by every effort, and not revealed
to any and everyone.
<The Maha Bandha.>
19. Pressing the left heel to the perineum and place the right foot on the
20. Fill in the air, keeping the chin firm against the chest, and, having
pressed the air, and the mind should be fixed on the middle of the eyebrows
or in the susumna (the spine).
21. Having kept it confined so long as possible, it should be expelled
slowly. Having practiced on the left side, it should be practiced on the
22. Some are of opinion that the closing of throat is not necessary here,
for keeping the tongue pressed against the roots of the upper teeth makes
a good bandha (stop).
23. This stops the upward motion of all the nadis. Verily this Muha Bandha
is the giver of great Siddhis.
24. This Maha Bandha is the most skillful means for cutting away the
snares of death. It brings about the conjunction of the Triveni (Ida,
Pingala and Susumna) and carries the mind to Kedar (the space between
the eyebrows, which is the seat of Siva).
25. As beauty and loveliness, do not avail a woman without a husband,
so the Maha Mudra and the Maha-Bandha are useless without the Maha Vedha.
<The Maha Vedha.>
26. Sitting with Maha Bandha, the Yogi should fill the air and keep
his mind collected. The movements of the Vayus (Prana and Apana) should
be stopped by closing the throat.
27. Resting both the hands equally on the ground, he should raise himself
a little and strike his buttocks against the ground gently. The air, leaving
both the passages (Ida and Pingala), starts into the middle one.
28. The union of the Ida and Pingala is effected, in order to bring about
immortality. When the air becomes as it were dead (by leaving its course
through the Ida and the Pingala) (<i.e.>, when it has been kept confined),
then it should be expelled.
29. The practice of this Maha Vedha, giver of great Siddhis, destroys old
age, grey hair, and shaking of the body, and therefore it is practiced by
the best masters.
30. These three are the great secrets. They are the destroyers of old age
and death, increase the appetite, confer the accomplishments of Anima, etc.
31. They should be practiced in 8 ways, daily and hourly. They increase
collection of good actions and lesson the evil ones. People, instructed well,
should begin their practice, little by little, first.
32. The Khechari Mudra is accomplished by thrusting the tongue into the
gullet, by turning it over itself, and keeping the eyesight in the middle
33. To accomplish this, the tongue is lengthened by cutting the freanum
linguae, moving, and pulling it. When it can touch the space between the
eyebrows, then the Khechari can be accomplished.
34. Taking a sharp, smooth and clean instrument, of the shape of a
cactus leaf, the freanum of the tongue should be cut a little (as much
as a hairs thickness), at a time.
35. Then rock salt and yellow myrobalan (both powdered) should be
rubbed in. On the 7th day, it should again be cut a hair's breadth.
36. One should go on doing thus, regularly for six months. At the end
of six months, the freanum of the tongue will be completely cut.
37. Turning the tongue upwards, it is fixed on three ways (esophagus,
windpipe and palate). Thus it makes the Khachari Mudra, and is called
the Vyoma Chakra.
38. The Yogi who sits for a minute turning his tongue upwards, is saved
from poisons, diseases, death, old age, etc.
39. He who knows the Khechari Mudra is not afflicted with disease,
death, sloth, sleep, hunger, thirst, and swooning.
40. He who knows the Khechari Mudra, is not troubled by diseases, is
not stained with karmas, and is not snared by time.
41. The Siddhas have devised this Khechari Mudra from the fact that
the mind and the tongue reach akasa by its practice.
42. If the hole behind the palate be stopped with Khechari by turning
the tongue upwards, then bindu cannot leave its place even if a women
43. If the Yogi drinks Somarasa (juice) by sitting with the tongue turned
backwards and mind concentrated, there is no doubt he conquers death
within 15 days.
44. If the Yogi, whose body is full of Somarasa, were bitten by Takshaka
(snake), its poison cannot permeate his body.
45. As fire is inseparably connected with the wood and light is connected
with the wick and oil, so does the soul not leave the body full of nectar
exuding from the Soma.
(<Note.>--Soma (Chandra) is described later on located in the thousand-
petalled lotus in the human brain, and is the same as is seen on Sivas' head in
pictures, and from which a sort of juice exudes. It is the restraining of this
exudation which makes one immortal.)
46. Those who eat the flesh of the cow and drink the immortal liquor daily,
are regarded by me men of noble family. Others are but a disgrace to their
(<Note.>Translation: Fortunate are the parents and blessed is the
country and the family where a Yogi is born. Anything given to such a Yogi,
becomes immortal. One, who discriminates between Purusa and Prakriti, purges
the sins of a million incarnations, by seeing, speaking, and touching such men
A Yogi far exceeds a thousand householders, a hundred vanapraasthas, and
a thousand Brahmaacharis.
Who can know the reality of the Raja Yoga? That country is very sacred
where resides a man who knows it. By seeing and honoring him, generations of
ignorant men get moksa, what to speak of those who are actually engaged in it.
He knows internal and external yoga, deserves adoration from you and me, what if
he is adored by the rest of mankind!
Those who engage in the great yoga, once or thrice daily, are to be
known as masters of great wealth (mabeshwaras) or Lords.)
47. The word (rasana[?]) means tongue; eating it is thrusting it in the gullet
which destroys great sins.
48. Immortal liquor is the nectar exuding from the moon (Chandra situated
on the left side of the space between the eyebrows). It is produced by the
fire which is generated by thrusting the tongue.
49. If the tongue can touch with its end the hole from which falls the
rasa (juice) which is saltish, bitter, sour, milky and similar to ghee
and honey, one can drive away disease, destroy old age, can evade an
attack of arms, become immortal in eight ways and can attract fairies.
50. He who drinks the clear stream of liquor of the moon (soma) falling
from the brain to the sixteen-petalled lotus (in the heart), obtained by
means of Prana by applying the tongue to the hole of the pendant in the
palate, and by meditating on the great power (Kundalini), becomes free
from disease and tender in body, like the stalk of a lotus, and the Yogi
lives a very long life.
51. On the top of the Meru (vertabral column), concealed in a hole, is the
Somarasa (nectar of Chandra); the wise, whose intellect is not over-powered
by Raja and Tamas gunas, but in whom Satwa guna is predominant, say there is
the (universal spirit) atma in it. It is the source of the down-going Ida,
Pingala and Susumna Nadis, which are the Ganges, the Yamuna and the Sarasvati.
From that Chandra is shed the essence of the body which causes death of men. It
should, therefore, be stopped from shedding. This (Khechari Mudra) is a very
good instrument for this purpose. There is no other means of achieving this
52. This hole is the generator of knowledge and is the source of the
five streams (Ida, Pingala, &c.). In that colorless vacuum, Khechari
Mudra should be established.
53. There is only one seed germinating the whole universe from it; and
there is only one Mudra, called Khachari. There is only one deva (god)
without any one's support, and there is one condition called Manonmani.
<The Uddiyana Bandha.>
54. Uddiyana is so called by the Yogis, because by its practice the
Prana (vayu), flies (flows) in the Susumna.
55. Uddiyana is so called, because the great bird, Prana, tied to it,
flies without being fatigued. It is explained below.
56. The belly above the navel is pressed backwards towards the spine.
This Uddiyana Bandha is like a lion for the elephant of death.
57. Uddiyana is always very easy, when learnt from a guru. The practiser
of this, if old, becomes young again.
58. The portions above and below the navel, should be drawn backwards
towards the spine. By practicing this for six months one can undoubtedly
59. Of all the Bandhas, Uddiyana is the best; for by binding it firmly
liberation comes spontaneously.
<The Mula Bandha.>
60. Pressing Yoni (perineum) with the heel, contract up the anus. By
drawing the Apana thus, Mula Bandha is made.
61. The Apana, naturally inclining downward, is made to go up by force.
This Mula Bandha is spoken of by Yogis as done by contracting the anus.
62. Pressing the heel well against the anus, draw up the air by force,
again and again till it (air) goes up.
63. Prana, Apana, Nada and Bindu uniting into one in this way, give
success in Yoga, undoubtedly.
64. By the purification of Prana, and Apana, urine and excrements
decrease. Even an old man becomes young by constantly practicing
65. Going up the Apana enters the zone of fire, <i.e.>, the stomach. The
flame of fire struck by the air is thereby lengthened.
(<Note.> In the center of the body is the seat of fire, like heated
In men it is triangular, in quadrupeds square, in birds circular.
There is a long thin flame in this fire.
It is gastric fire.)
66. These, fire and Apana, go to the naturally hot Prana, which, becoming
inflamed thereby, causes burning sensation in the body.
67. The Kundalini, which has been sleeping all this time, becomes well
heated by this means and awakens well. It becomes straight like a serpent,
struck dead with a stick.
68. It enters the Brahma Nadi, just like a serpent enters its hole. Therefore,
the Yogi should always practice this Mula Bandha.
<The Jalandhara Bandha.>
69. Contract the throat and press the chin firmly against the chest.
This is called Jalandhara Bandha, which destroys old age and death.
70. It stops the opening (hole) of the group of Nadis, through which
the juice from the sky (from the Soma or Chandra in the brain) falls
down. It is, therefore, called the Jalandhara Bandha -- the destroyer
of a host of diseases of the throat.
71. In Jalandhara Bandha, the indications of a perfect contraction of
throat are, that the nectar does not fall into the fire (the Surya situated
in the navel), and the air is not disturbed.
72. The two Nadis should be stopped firmly by contracting the throat.
This is called the middle circuit or center (Madhya Chakra), and it
stops the 16 adharas (<i.e.>, vital parts).
(<Note.>--The sixteen vital parts mentioned by renowned Yogis are the
(1) thumbs, (2) ankles, (3) knees, (5) the prepuce, (6) organs of generation,
(7) the navel, (8) the heart, (9) the neck, (10) the throat, (11) the palate,
(12) the nose, (13) the middle of the eyebrows, (14) the forehead, (15) the
head and (16) the Brahma randra.)
73. By drawing up the mulasthana (anus), Uddiyana Bandha should be
performed. The flow of the air should be directed to the Susumna, by
closing the Ida and the Pingala.
74. The Prana becomes calm and latent by this means, and thus
there is no death, old age, disease, etc.
75. These three Bandhas are the best of all and have been practiced by the
masters. Of all the means of success in Hatha Yoga, they are known to the
Yogis as the chief ones.
76. The whole of the nectar, possessing divine qualities, which exudes
from the Soma (Chandra) is devoured by the Surya; and, owing to this,
the body becomes old.
77. To remedy this, the opening of the Surya is avoided by excellent
means. It is to be learnt best by instructions from a guru; but not by
even a million discussions.
<The Viparita Karani.>
78. Above the navel and below the palate respectively, are the Surya and
the Chandra. The exercise, called the Viparita Karani, is learnt from
the guru's instructions.
79. This exercise increases the appetite; and, therefore, one who
practices it, should obtain a good supply of food. If the food be
scanty, it will burn him at once.
80. Place the head on the ground and the feet up into the sky, for a
second only the first day, and increase this time daily.
81. After six months, the wrinkles and grey hair are not seen. He who
practices it daily, even for two hours, conquers death.
82. Even if one who lives a wayward life, without observing any rules of
Yoga, but performs Vajroli, deserves success and is a Yogi.
83. Two things are necessary for this, and these are difficult to get for
the ordinary people -- (1) milk and (2) a woman behaving, as desired.
84. By practicing to draw in the <bindu>, discharged during cohabitation,
whether one be a man or a woman, one obtains success in the practice of
85. By means of a pipe, one should blow air slowly into the passage in
the male organ. [Urethra.]
86. By practice, the discharged <bindu> is drawn out. One can draw back
and preserve one's own discharged <bindu>.
87. The Yogi who can protect his <bindu> thus, overcomes death;
because death comes by discharging <bindu>, and life is prolonged
by its preservation.
88. By preserving <bindu>, the body of the Yogi emits a pleasing smell.
There is no fear of death, so long as the <bindu> is well-established in
89. The <bindu> of men is under control of the mind, and life is
dependant on the <bindu>. Hence, mind and <bindu> should be protected by
90. Sahajoli and Amaroli are only the different kinds of Vajroli. Ashes
from burnt up cowdung should be mixed with water.
91. Being free from the exercise of Vajroli, man and woman should both
rub it on their bodies.
92. This is called Sahajoli, and should be relied on by Yogis. It does
good and gives moksa.
93. This Yoga is achieved by courageous wise men, who are free from
sloth, and cannot be accomplished by the slothful.
94. In the doctrine of the sect of the Kapalikas, the Amaroli is the
drinking of the mid stream; leaving the 1st, as it is a mixture of too
much bile and the last, which is useless.
95. He who drinks Amari, snuff it daily, and practices Vajroli, is called
96. The <bindu> discharged in the practice of Vajroli should be mixed
with ashes, and the rubbing it on the best parts of the body gives
<The Sakti chalana.>
97. Kutilanga (crooked-bodied), Kundalini, Bhujangi (a she-serpent)
Sakti, Ishwari, Kuundali, Arunddhati, -- all these words are synonymous.
98. As a door is opened with a key, so the Yogi opens the door of mukti
by opening Kundalini by means of Hatha Yoga.
99. The Parameswari (Kundalini) sleeps, covering the hole of the passage
by which one can go to the seat of Brahma which is free from pains.
100. Kundali Sakti sleeps on the bulb, for the purpose of giving moksa to
Yogis and bondage to the ignorant. He who knows it, knows Yoga.
101. Kundali is of a bent shape, and has been described to be like a
serpent. He who has moved that Sakti is no doubt Mukta (released from
102. Youngster Tapaswini (a she-ascetic), laying between the Ganges and
the Yamuni, (Ida and Pingala) should be caught hold of by force, to get
the highest position.
103. Ida is called the goddess Ganges, Pingala goddess Yamuna. In the
middle of the Ida and the Pingala is the infant widow, Kundali.
104. This sleeping she-serpent should be awakened by catching hold of
her tail. By the force of Hatha, the Sakti leaves her sleep, and starts
105. This she-serpent is situated in Muladhar. She should be caught
and moved daily, morning and evening, for 1/2 a prahar (1 1/2 hours),
by filling with air through Pingala by the Paridhana method.
106. The bulb is above the anus, a vitasti (12 angulas) long, and measures
4 angulas (3 inches) in extent and is soft and white, and appears as if a
107. Keeping the feet in Vajra-asana (Padma-asana), hold them firmly
with the hands. The position of the bulb then will be near the ankle joint,
where it should be pressed.
108. The Yogi, sitting with Vajra-asana and having moved Kundali,
should perform Bhastrika to awaken the Kundali soon.
109. Bhanu (Surya, near the navel) should be contracted (by contracting
the navel) which will move the Kundali. There is no fear for him who does
so, even if he has entered the mouth of death.
110. By moving this, for two muhurtas, it is drawn up a little by entering
the Susumna (spinal column).
111. By this Kundalini leaves the entrance of the Susumna at once, and
the Prana enters it of itself.
112. Therefore, this comfortably sleeping Arundhati should always be
moved; for by so doing the Yogi gets rid of diseases.
113. The Yogi, who has been able to move the Sakti deserves success. It
is useless to say more, suffice it to say that he conquers death playfully.
114. The Yogi observing Brahmacharya (continence) and always eating sparingly,
gets success within 40 days by practice with Kundali.
115. After moving the Kundali, plenty of Bhastra should be performed. By
such practice, he has no fear from the god of death.
116. There is no other way, but the practice of the Kundali, for washing
away the impurities of 72,000 Nadis.
117. This middle Nadi becomes straight by steady practice of postures;
Pranayama and Mudras of Yogis.
118. Those whose sleep has decreased by practice and mind has become
calm by samadhi, get beneficial accomplishments by Sambhavi and other
119. Without Raja Yoga, this earth, the night, and the Mudras, be they
howsoever wonderful, do not appear beautiful.
(<Note.>--Raja Yoga=asana. Earth=steadiness, calmness. Night=
Kumbhaka; cessations of the activity of the Prana, just as King's
officials cease moving at night. Hence night means absence of motion,
120. All the practices relating to air should be performed with
concentrated mind. A wise man should not allow his mind to wander
121. These are the Mudras, as explained by Adinatha (Siva). Every one
of them is the giver of great accomplishments to the practiser.
122. He is really the <guru> and not to be considered as Isvara in
human form who teaches the Mudras as handed down from guru to guru.
123. Engaging in practice, by putting faith in his words, one gets the
Siddhis of Anima, etc., as also evades death.
<End of chapter III, on the Exposition of the Mudras.>
1. Salutation to the Guru, the dispenser of happiness to all, appearing
as Nada, Vindu and kali. One who is devoted to him, obtains the highest
2. Now I will describe a regular method of attaining to Samadhi, which
destroys death, is the means for obtaining happiness, and gives the
3-4. Raja Yoga, Samadhi, Unmani, Manonmani, Amaratwa, Laya, Tatwa,
Sunya, Asunya, Parama Pada, Amanasska, Adwaitama, Niralamba,
Niranjana, Jiwana Mukti, Sahaja, Turya, are all synonymous.
5. As salt being dissolved in water becomes one with it, so when Atma
and mind become one, it is called Samadhi.
6. When the Prana becomes lean (vigourless) and the mind becomes absorbed,
then their becoming equal is called Samadhi.
7. This equality and oneness of the self and the ultra self, when all
Samkalpas cease to exist, is called Samadhi.
8. Or, who can know the true greatness of the Raja Yoga. Knowledge,
mukti, condition, and Siddhis can be learnt by instructions from a
9. Indifference to worldly enjoyments is very difficult to obtain, and
equally difficult is the knowledge of the Realities to obtain. It is
very difficult to get the condition of Samadhi, without the favor of a
10. By means of various postures and different Kumbhakas, when the
great power (Kundali) awakens, then the Prana becomes absorbed in Sunya
11. The Yogi whose sakti has awakened, and who has renounced all
actions, attains to the condition of Samadhi, without any effort.
12. When the Prana flows in the Susumna, and the mind has entered
sunya, then the Yogi is free from the effects of Karmas.
13. O immortal one (that is, the <yogi> who has attained to the condition
of Samadhi), I salute thee! Even death itself, into whose mouth the whole of
this moveable and immovable world has fallen, has been conquered by thee.
14. Amaroli, Vajroli and Saholi are accomplished when the mind
becomes calm and Prana has entered the middle channel.
15. How can it be possible to get knowledge, so long as the Prana is
living and the mind has not died? No one else can get moksa except one
who can make one's Prana and mind latent.
16. Always living in a good locality and having known the secret of
the Susumna, which has a middle course, and making the Vayu move in
it, (the Yogi) should restrain the Vayu in the Brahma randhra.
17. Time, in the form of night and day, is made by the sun and the moon.
That the Susumna devours this time (death) even, is a great secret.
18. In this body there are 72,000 openings of Nadis; of these, the
Susumna, which has the Sambhavi Sakti in it, is the only important one,
the rest are useless.
19. The Vayu should be made to enter the Susumna without restraint by
him who has practices the control of breathing and has awakened the
Kundali by the (gastric) fire.
20. The Prana, flowing through the Susumna, brings about the condition
of manonmani; other practices are simply futile for the Yogi.
21. By whom the breathing has been controlled, by him the activities of
the mind also have been controlled; and, conversely, by whom the activities
of the mind have been controlled, by him the breathing also has been controlled.
22. There are two causes of the activities of the mind; (1) Vasana
(desires) and (2) the respiration (the Prana). Of these, the destruction
of the one is the destruction of both.
23. Breathing is lessened when the mind becomes absorbed, and the mind
becomes absorbed when the Prana is restrained.
24. Both the mind and the breath are united together, like milk and
water; and both of them are equal in their activities. Mind begins its
activities where there is the breath, and the Prana begins its activities
where there is the mind.
25. By the suspension of the one, therefore, comes the suspension of the
other, and by the operations of the one are brought about the operations of
the other. When they are present, the Idriyas (the senses) remain engaged in
their proper functions, and when they become latent then there is moksa.
26. By nature, Mercury and mind are unsteady: there is nothing in the
world which cannot be accomplished when these are made steady.
27. O Parvati! Mercury and breathing, when made steady, destroy diseases
and the dead himself comes to life (by their means). By their (proper) control,
moving in the air is attained.
28. The breathing is calmed when the mind becomes steady and calm;
and hence the preservation of <bindu>. The preservation of this latter
makes the satwa established in the body.
29. Mind is the master of the senses, and the breath is the master of the
mind. The breath in its turn is subordinate to the laya (absorption), and
that laya depends on the nada.
30. This very laya is what is called moksa, or, being a sectarian, you may
not call it moksa; but when the mind becomes absorbed, a sort of ecstasy is
31. By the suspension of respiration and the annihilation of the enjoyments
of the senses, when the mind becomes devoid of all the activities and remains
changeless, then the Yogi attains to the Laya Stage.
32. When the thoughts and activities are destroyed, then the Laya Stage
is produced, to describe which is beyond the power of speech, being known
by self-experience alone.
33. They often speak of Laya, Laya; but what is meant by it?
Laya is simply the forgetting of the objects of senses when the
Vasanas (desires) do not rise into existence again.
<The Sambhavi Mudra.>
34. The Vedas and the Sastras are like ordinary public women. Sambhavi
Mudra is the one, which is secluded like a respectable lady.
35. Aiming at Brahman inwardly, while keeping the sight directed to the
external objects, without blinking the eyes, is called Sambhavi Mudra,
hidden in the Vedas and the Sastras.
36. When the Yogi remains inwardly attentive to the Brahman, keeping
the mind and the Prana absorbed, and the sight steady, as if seeing
everything while in reality seeing nothing outside, below, or above,
verily then it is called the Sambhavi Mudra, which is learnt by the
favor of a <guru>. Whatever, wonderful, Sunya or Asunya is perceived,
is to be regarded as the manifestation of that great Sambhu (Siva).
37. The two states, the Sambhavi and the Khechari, are different because
of their seats (being the heart and the space between the eyebrows respectively);
but both cause happiness, for the mind becomes absorbed in the Chita-sukha-Rupa-
atmana which is void.
38. Fix the gaze on the light (seen on the tip of the nose) and raise the
eyebrows a little, with the mind contemplating as before (in the Sambhavi
Mudras, that is, inwardly thinking of Brahma, but apparently looking outside).
This will create the Unmani avastha at once.
39. Some are devoted to the Vedas, some to Nigama, while others are
enwrapt in Logic, but none knows the value of this mudra, which enables
one to cross the ocean of existence.
40. With steady calm mind and half closed eyes, fixed on the tip of
the nose, stopping the Ida and the Pingala without blinking, he who can
see the light which is the all, the seed, the entire brilliant, great
Tatwama, approaches Him, who is the great object. What is the use of
41. One should not meditate on the Linga (<i.e.>, Atman) in the day (<i.e.>,
while Surya or Pingala is working) or at night (when Ida is working), but
should always contemplate after restraining both.
42. When the air has ceased to move in the right and the left nostrils,
and has begun to flow in the middle path, then Khechari Mudra can be
accomplished there. There is no doubt of this.
43. If the Prana can be drawn into the Sunya (Susumna), which is
between the Ida and the Pingala, and made motionless there, then the
Khechari Mudra can truly become steady there.
44. That Mudra is called Khechari which is performed in the supportless
space between the Surya and the Chandra (the Ida and the Pingala) and
called the Vyoma Chakra.
45. The Khechari which causes the stream to flow from the Chandra
(Soma) is the beloved of Siva. The incomparable divine Susumna should
be closed by the tongue drawn back.
46. It can be closed from the front also (by stopping the movements of
the Prana), and then surely it becomes the Khechari. By practice, this
Khechari leads to Unmani.
47. The seat of Siva is between the eyebrows, and the mind becomes
absorbed there. This condition (in which the mind is thus absorbed) is
known as Turya, and death has no access there.
48. The Khechari should be practiced till there is Yoga-nidra (Samadhi).
One who has induced Yoga-nidra, cannot fall a victim to death.
49. Freeing the mind from all thoughts and thinking of nothing, one
should sit firmly like a pot in the space (surrounded and filled with
50. As with air, in and out of the body, remains unmoved, so the breath
with mind becomes steady in its place (<i.e.>, in Brahma randhra).
51. By thus practicing, night and day, the breathing is brought under
control, and, as the practice increases, the mind becomes calm and steady.
52. By rubbing the body over with Amrita (exuding from the moon), from
head to foot, one gets Mahakaya, <i.e.>, great strength and energy.
<End of the Khechari.>
53. Placing the mind into the Kundalini, and getting the later into the
mind, by looking upon the Buddhi (intellect) with mind (reflexively), the
Param Pada (Brahma) should be obtained.
54. Keep the atma inside the Kha (Brahma) and place Brahma inside your
atma. Having made everything pervaded with Kha (Brahma), think of nothing
55. One should become void in and void out, and void like a pot in the
space. Full in and full outside, like a jar in the ocean.
56. He should be neither of his inside nor of his outside world; and,
leaving all thoughts, he should think of nothing.
57. The whole of this world and all the schemes of the mind are but the
creations of thought. Discarding these thoughts and taking leave of all
conjectures, O Rama! obtain peace.
58. As camphor disappears in fire, and rock salt in water, so the mind
united with the atma loses its identity.
59. When the knowable, and the knowledge, are both destroyed equally,
then there is no second way (<i.e.>, Duality is destroyed).
60. All this movable and immovable world is mind. When the mind
has attained to the unmani avastha, there is no dwaita (from the
absence of the working of the mind).
61. Mind disappears by removing the knowable, and, on its disappearance,
atma only remains behind.
62. The high-souled Acharyas (Teachers) of yore gained experience in
the various methods of Samadhi themselves, and then they preached them
63. Salutations to Thee, O Susumna, to Thee O Kundalini, to Thee O Sudha,
born of Chandra, to Thee O Manonmani! to Thee O great power, energy and
the intelligent spirit.
64. I will describe now the practice of anahata nada, as propounded by
Goraksa Natha, for the benefit of those who are unable to understand the
principles of knowledge -- a method, which is liked by the ignorant also.
65. Adinatha propounded 1 1/4 crore methods of trance, and they are all
extant. Of these, the hearing of the anahata nada is the only one, the
chief, in my opinion.
66. Sitting with Mukta Asana and with the Sambhavi Mudra, the Yogi
should hear the sound inside his right ear, with collected mind.
67. The ears, the eyes, the nose, and the mouth should be closed and
then the clear sound is heard in the passage of the Susumna which has
been cleansed of all its impurities.
68. In all the Yogas, there are four states: (1) arambha or the
preliminary, (2) Ghata, or the state of a jar, (3) Parichaya (known),
(4) nispatti (consummate).
69. When the Brahma granthi (in the heart) is pierced through by
Pranayama, then a sort of happiness is experienced in the vacuum of
the heart, and the anahat sounds, like various tinkling sounds of
ornaments, are heard in the body.
70. In the arambha, a Yogi's body becomes divine, glowing, healthy,
and emits a divine smell. The whole of his heart becomes void.
<The Ghata Avastha.>
71. In the second stage, the airs are united into one and begun moving
in the middle channel. The Yogi's posture becomes firm, and he becomes
wise like a god.
72. By this means the Visnu knot (in the throat) is pierced which is
indicated by highest pleasure experienced, and then the Bheri sound
(like the beating of a kettle drum) is evolved in the vacuum in the
<The Parichaya Avastha.>
73. In the third stage, the sound of a drum is known to arise in
the Sunya between the eyebrows, and then the Vayu goes to the
Mahasunya, which is the home of all the siddhis.
74. Conquering, then, the pleasures of the mind, ecstasy is spontaneously
produced which is devoid of evils, pains, old age, disease, hunger and
75. When the Rudra granthi is pierced, and the air enters the seat of
the Lord (the space between the eyebrows), then the perfect sound like
that of a flute is produced.
76. The union of the mind and the sound is called the Raja-Yoga. The
(real) Yogi becomes the creator and destroyer of the universe, like God.
77. Perpetual Happiness is achieved by this; I do not care if the mukti
be not attained. This happiness, resulting from absorption (in Brama), is
obtained by means of Raja-Yoga.
78. Those who are ignorant of the Raja-Yoga and practice only the
Hatha-Yoga, will, in my opinion, waste their energy fruitlessly.
79. Contemplation on the space between the eyebrows is, in my opinion,
best for accomplishing soon the <Unmani> state. For people of small
intellect, it is a very easy method for obtaining perfection in the Raja-
Yoga. The Laya produced by nada, at once gives experience (of spiritual
80. The happiness which increases in the hearts of Yogiswaras, who
have gained success in Samadhi by means of attention to the nada, is
beyond description, and is known to <Sri Guru Natha> alone.
81. The sound which a muni hears by closing his ears with his fingers,
should be heard attentively, till the mind becomes steady in it.
82. By practicing with this nada, all other external sounds are stopped.
The Yogi becomes happy by overcoming all distractions within 15 days.
83. In the beginning, the sounds heard are of great variety and very
loud; but, as the practice increases, they become more and more subtle.
84. In the first stage, the sounds are surging, thundering like the beating
of kettle drums and jingling ones. In the intermediate stage, they are like
those produced by conch, <Mridanga>, bells, &c.
85. In the last stage, the sounds resemble those from tinklets, flute,
Vina, bee, &c. These various kinds of sounds are heard as being produced
in the body.
86. Though hearing loud sounds like those of thunder, kettle drums, &c.,
one should practice with the subtle sounds also.
87. Leaving the loudest, taking up the subtle one, and leaving the subtle
one, taking up the loudest, thus practicing, the distracted mind does not
88. Wherever the mind attaches itself first, it becomes steady there;
and when it becomes absorbed in it.
89. Just as a bee, drinking sweet juice, does not care for the smell of
the flower; so the mind, absorbed in the nada, does not desire the objects
90. The mind, like an elephant habituated to wander in the garden of
enjoyments, is capable of being controlled by the sharp goad of anahata
91. The mind, captivated in the snare of nada, gives up all its activity;
and, like a bird with clipped wings, becomes calm at once.
92. Those desirous of the kingdom of Yoga, should take up the practice
of hearing the anahata nada, with mind collected and free from all cares.
93. Nada is the snare for catching the mind; and, when it is caught like
a deer, it can be killed also like it.
94. Nada is the bolt of the stable door for the horse (the minds of the
Yogis). A Yogi should determine to practice constantly in the hearing of
the nada sounds.
95. Mind gets the properties of calcined mercury. When deprived of its
unsteadiness it is calcined, combined with the sulphur of nada, and then
it roams like it in the supportless akasa or Brahma.
96. The mind is like a serpent, forgetting all its unsteadiness by hearing
the nada, it does not run away anywhere.
97. The fire, catching firewood, is extinguished along with it (after
burning it up); and so the mind also, working with the nada, becomes
latent along with it.
98. The antahkarana (mind), like a deer, becomes absorbed and motionless
on hearing the sound of bells, etc.; and then it is very easy for an expert
archer to kill it.
99. The knowable interpenetrates the anahata sound when it is heard,
and the mind interpenetrates the knowable. The mind becomes absorbed
there, which is the seat of the all-pervading, almighty Lord.
100. So long as the sounds continue, there is the idea of akasa. When
they disappear, then it is called Para Brahma, Paramatmana.
101. Whatever is heard in the form of nada, is the sakti (power). That
which is formless, the final state of the Tatwas, is the Parameswara.
102. All the methods of Hatha are meant for gaining success in Raja-
Yoga; for, the man, who is well-established in the Raja-Yoga, overcomes
103. Tatwa is the seed, Hatha the field; and Indifference (Vairagya) the
water. By the action of these three, the creeper Unmani thrives very
104. All the accumulations of sins are destroyed by practicing always with
the nada; and the mind and the airs do certainly become latent in the
105. Such a one does not hear the noise of the conch and Dundubhi.
Being in the Unmani avastha, his body becomes like a piece of wood.
106. There is no doubt, such a Yogi becomes free from all states, from all
cares, and remains like one dead.
107. He is not devoured by death, is not bound by his actions. The Yogi
who is engaged in Samadhi is overpowered by none.
108. The Yogi, engaged in Samadhi, feels neither smell, taste, color, touch,
sound, nor is conscious of his own self.
109. He whose mind is neither sleeping, waking, remembering, destitute
of memory, disappearing nor appearing, is liberated.
110. He feels neither heat, cold, pain, pleasure, respect nor disrespect.
Such a Yogi is absorbed in Samadhi.
111. He who, though awake, appears like one sleeping, and is without
inspiration and expiration, is certainly free.
112. The Yogi, engaged in Samadhi, cannot be killed by any instrument,
and is beyond the controlling powers of beings. He is beyond the reach
of incantations and charms.
113. As long as the Prana does not enter and flow in the middle channel
and the <vindu> does not become firm by the control of the movements of the
Prana; as long as the mind does not assume the form of Brahma without
any effort in contemplation, so long all the talk of knowledge and wisdom
is merely the nonsensical babbling of a mad man.
END OF HATHA YOGA PRADIPIKA.
[End of E-text of the Hatha Yoga Padipika]
[Copyright (c) 2000 by Monroe P. Munro.]